Friday, February 7, 2020

Water Pools Clorination

Chlorine is used in pool water because it kills bacteria and germs, oxidizes organic debris from perspiration and body oils, and fights algae, but among adults, exposure to chlorine in pools has been linked to bladder and rectal cancer and increased risk for coronary heart disease.

When chlorine mixes with organic matter (such as dead leaves and soil), it forms new chemicals that remain in the water. These are called chlorination by-products. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies some chlorination by-products as possible causes of cancer, specifically bladder cancer.

Putting too much chlorine into pools can actually lead to a type of poisoning that can cause acute pain and discomfort for you and your kids.

When too much chlorine is added to the water, a safe pool can become a pit of harmful chemicals. In fact, over-chlorinated pools threaten swimmers’ health in two ways. First, contact with the skin can cause irritation similar to a burning sensation. Also, the gases given off by the evaporation of water oversaturated with chlorine-based cleaning solutions can enter the nose and eyes to cause severe itchiness and discomfort.
Symptoms of chlorine poisoning
While cases are usually few and far between, chlorine poisoning has a few telltale signs that you should be on the lookout for:
  • Sudden onset of nausea and vomiting
  • Burning sensation in throat
  • Itchy eyes
  • Difficulty or shallow breathing
  • Skin redness
  • Dull chest pain.
Common household bleach (sodium hypochlorite, in its chemical formula, NaClO) which also has Cl in its chemical formula, NaClO) which is toxic and known to be cancer causing.

Published reports have revealed increased risk of colorectal cancers in people exposed to chlorinated drinking water or chemical derivatives of chlorination. Oestrogen plays a dual positive functions for diminishing the possibilities of such risk by reducing the entrance, and increasing the excretion, of these chemicals. In addition, there are supplementary measures that could be employed in order to reduce this risk further, such as boiling the drinking water, revising the standard concentrations of calcium, magnesium and iron in the public drinking water and prescribing oestrogen in susceptible individuals. Hypo-methylation of genomic DNA could be used as a biological marker for screening for the potential development of colorectal cancers.

Oestrogen inhibits the absorption and increases the excretion of xenobiotics and their metabolites via the bile. Oestrogen has anti-hypo methylation activity on the genomic DNA by reducing the plasma levels of homocysteine. Colorectal carcinomas are the third most common tumour in both sexes across the globe. The hazard to develop tumours in different specific sites including colon and rectum in association with the long-term exposure to water disinfectants in drinking water is well established. 

The risk to develop tumours in the large intestines is dependent on the concentrations and frequency of exposure to the trihalomethanes in the used water for drinking. The risk to develop malignant tumours due to water pollution is higher amongst user of swimming pools and is also dependent on the frequency of showering. Indeed, this risk is much higher in those who are avid consumers of fatty foods and/or their meals lacks vegetables and fruits in this susceptible group amongst those who are users of swimming pools. 

Chlorination of water rich in organic material is known to produce a complex mixture of organochlorine compounds, including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances. A historical cohort study of 621,431 persons living in 56 towns in Finland was conducted in order to assess the relation between historical exposure to drinking water mutagenicity and cancer.

Exposure to quantity of mutagenicity was calculated on the basis of historical information of raw water quality and water treatment practices using an empirical equation relating mutagenicity and raw water pH, KMnO4 value and chlorine dose. Cancer cases were derived from the population-based Finnish Cancer Registry and follow-up time in the study started in 1970.

Age, gender, time period, social class, and urban residence were taken into account in Poisson regression analysis of the observed numbers of cases using expected numbers of cases standardized for age and gender as a basis.


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