Thursday, January 23, 2020

Water in Ecuadorian Jungle

Oil Companies treat this Earth as if we have another one to move on. Destruction in one part of the world affect us all. What kind of people are they?

The oil pollution in Ecuador has been characterised as “one of the largest environmental disasters in history” by Rainforest Action Network, 10 May 2010.  The oil contamination of soil and water sources used by residents for agriculture, fishing, bathing and drinking has allegedly caused a sharp increase in serious illnesses among local people in parts of Sucumbios state in Ecuador.  It has also allegedly displaced residents and left many people without their traditional sources of income.  The allegations are against both Texaco/Chevron and Petroecuador. 

David Feige, a former public defender, says that “…environmental legacy includes as many as 16 million gallons of spilled crude -- 50% more than the Exxon Valdez dumped in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in 1989; hundreds of toxic waste pits, many containing the chemical-laden byproducts of drilling; and an estimated 18 billion gallons of waste, or "produced", water, which some tests have shown to contain possibly cancer-causing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at levels many times higher than those permitted in the U.S.”

 Amnesty International USA, 2007
"Our health has been damaged seriously by the contamination caused by Texaco. Many people in our community now have red stains on their skin and others have been vomiting and fainting. Some little children have died because their parents did not know they should not drink the river water." - Affidavit by one of the plaintiffs representing the indigenous Secoya tribe in the lawsuit against Chevron.

Lost in the entire Chevron Ecuador PR and legal battles is a little known report that between 2002 and 2010, Petroecuador – the state-owned oil company that took over the oil fields owned by Texaco, just after that company was purchased by Chevron – was responsible for an estimated 1,415 “environmental accidents” according to the Ecuadorian newspaper El Universo.

The oil company operated in five oil fields – Shushufindi, Sacha, Auca, Lago Agrio, and Libertador – where the damage happened. There is no report that Petroecuador has completed environmental clean-up in those areas.

Locally, Petroecuador is seen as the real problem, even as the government, which effectively runs the media, has formed a public view against Chevron as well.

But lost in all of this, from fraudulently prepared reports, to intimidation of Ecuadorian judges, is the fact that the story of oil exploration in Ecuador is one of the actions of many companies, as Chevron has not been in operation since 1992, and Occidental Petroleum was the last American company to work in the nation until they were kicked out in 2007.

For example, little discussed is the role of Canadian oil companies in Ecuador. Firms like Ivanhoe Energy and Encana, which started operations in 1999.

Rebecca John, BBC, Jun 2005
“We had absolutely no idea what was going to happen the day we filmed with the Quichuar people in Ecuador…They were angry with the oil companies for polluting their lands and ruining their lives. After they showed us around, we could see why. Several large pits full of oil and toxic waste are scattered throughout their land. They told us that toxic substances from these pits regularly flow into their water supply and have also polluted the food chain, which the Quichuar rely on for their survival. All this has made them sick, they said, and very, very angry. After standing next to one of the pits for a short while I began to feel dizzy. The smell was overpowering and my stomach churned…What it must be like to live there, with the fear of contamination ever-present, I can't even begin to imagine.” 

In the Confessions of an Economic Hit Man John Perkins explain how he as Economic Hit Man of Main Company was one of the people responsible for Placing Ecuador in an indebted situation towards International Banks so after the country became bankrupt the large banks ask access to the country resources. which are oi resources This is the result of the action that is economic action and end up with an ecological and humanitarian disaster.


Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Industrial Fishing in International Waters and Oceans Ecosystems

The discussion of a high-seas ban began several years ago, but is gaining rapid momentum now as member states of the United Nations convene in New York City to negotiate a treaty on protecting high-seas biodiversity from industrial activity, including fishing.

 Marine Reserves

Some marine reserves already exist in international waters. Deep-water seamounts where fish aggregate and where ancient coral beds grow have been protected from destructive bottom trawling through national agreements. More such reserves are necessary, the current discussions in New York "will help focus attention on what's wrong with these fisheries."

That's why some activists and scientists are now discussing the idea of creating a marine reserve so big it would cover most of the ocean. Specifically, they want fishing banned in international waters.

Fishing in International Waters

In this largely unregulated area, fishing boats use voluminous trawl nets, long lines miles in length, and other industrial gear to catch migrating tunas and bill fishes, sharks, and seafloor species like tooth fish, usually sold as Chilean sea bass.

The environmental impact of these fisheries can be devastating. Deep-sea trawling destroys seafloor habitats, including ancient corals, while killing many creatures that are ultimately discarded. Meanwhile, the total contribution to the world's food supply from these fisheries is negligible, catch records have shown.


Only a handful of nations catch most of the fish in the high seas, especially Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and Spain.

Because most species in international waters at some point migrate through coastal zones, a ban would not necessarily prevent these fish from being caught, but it would give every nation — even those without long-distance fishing fleets — a fairer chance to catch them.

Deep-sea trawling

Bottom trawling is an industrial fishing method where a large net with heavy weights is dragged across the seafloor, scooping up everything in its path – from the targeted fish to incidentally caught, centuries-old corals.

New Zealand and Japan, are the world's leaders in deep-sea trawling. "That deep-water trawling really needs to stop, irrespective of what happens with the United Nations biodiversity talks,"

While some experts have suggested that it might be politically easier to establish smaller marine reserves surveillance and enforcement actually gets easier as a reserve gets larger.

 How Much?

 How much of the world’s oceans are affected by fishing? In February, a team of scientists led by David Kroodsma from the Global Fishing  The figure at 55 percent—an area four times larger than that covered by land-based agriculture. The paper was widely covered, with several outlets leading with the eye-popping stat that “half the world’s oceans [are] now fished industrially.”

The researched tracked 70,000 industrial fishing vessels from 2012 to 2016.

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing are the main activities by which humans appropriate the planet’s primary production  and reshape ecosystems worldwide. Recent advances in satellite-based observation have allowed high-resolution monitoring of forestry and agriculture, creating opportunities such as carbon management , agricultural forecasting , and biodiversity monitoring  on a global scale.

 In contrast, we lack a precise understanding of the spatial and temporal footprint of fishing, limiting our ability to quantify the response of global fleets to changes in climate, policy, economics, and other drivers. Although fishing activities have been monitored for selected fleets using electronic vessel monitoring systems, logbooks, or onboard observers, these efforts have produced heterogeneous data that are not publicly available.

Fishing vessels exhibit behavior with little natural analog, including circumglobal movement patterns and low sensitivity to energy costs or seasonal and short-term interannual oceanographic drivers. It appears that modern fishing is like other forms of mass production that are partially insulated from natural cycles and are instead shaped by policy and culture.

The absolute footprint of fishing is much larger than those of other forms of food production, even though capture fisheries provide only 1.2% of global caloric production for human food consumption, ~34 kcal per capita per day . We also find that large regions of the ocean are not heavily fished, and these areas may offer opportunities for low-cost marine conservation.


Monday, January 20, 2020

Doctrines Philosophies and Water

Sound Technology affects Water in the Oceans and Marine Life

Effects of Noise Pollution from Ships on Marine Life. ... Studies have showed that while these 'sounds' may have no impact on human, in marine life, they can be detrimental. Population of cetacean (whales and dolphins) has declined in areas prone to such noise pollution from ships.

Two main reasons that make environmental impact of noise in marine life especially grave are- firstly noise travels much more in water, covering greater distances than it would do on land while travelling though air, and secondly because the marine life is extremely sensitive to noise pollution. Due to their extreme reliance on underwater sounds for basic life functions like searching for food and mate and an absence of any mechanism to safeguard them against it, underwater noise pollution disrupts marine life in more serious ways.

Source of ocean noise pollution include everything from the ship noise to the low frequency sonar ‘sounds’ used extensively in submarine detection or even the seismic air gun noise from oil and gas exploration or even commercial shipping traffic and coastal jet ski traffic. Studies have showed that while these ‘sounds’ may have no impact on human, in marine life, they can be detrimental. Population of cetacean (whales and dolphins) has declined in areas prone to such noise pollution from ships.

The effect of underwater noise pollution is more painful than anything else for the animals. Most animals are alarmed by the alien sounds. The deaths can occur due to hemorrhages, changed diving pattern, migration to newer places, and damage to internal organs and an overall panic response to the foreign sounds. There is also a disruption in normal communication between marine animals as a result of underwater noise pollution. This means animals prone to noise pollution are unable to call their mates, look for food or even make a cry for help under such circumstances.

Many marine animals like the fish (rockfish, herring, san eel, cod, blue whiting etc) show signs of extensive damage to their ears upon exposure to seismic air guns even up to several kilometers.

Sound Technology used for the Oil Exploitation Affect the structure of the water in a negative way

The sound waves hit the sea floor, penetrating miles into it, and bounce back to the surface, where they are picked up by hydrophones. The acoustic patterns form a three-dimensional map of where oil and gas most likely lie. ... And air guns are now the most common method companies use to map the ocean floor.

The layers of the seafloor are examined with seismic reflection and seismic refraction (also called wide angle seismics). Echosounding is a basic type of seismic reflection. Echosounding is used to measure the depth of the water. High-frequency echosounders (12,000 Hz) are used to measure the depth to the seafloor. A sound pulse is sent from a ship and that sound reflects off the seafloor and returns to the ship. The time the sound takes to travel to the bottom and back is used to calculate the distance to the seafloor . Low-frequency echosounders (1,000 to 6,000 Hz) can penetrate a short distance into the seafloor, up to approximately 100 meters, to study the upper sediment layers

Seismic reflection uses a stronger sound signal and lower sound frequencies (10-50 Hz) than echosounding in order to look deeper below the seafloor. The sound pulse is often sent from an airgun array towed behind a slowly moving ship. Airguns rapidly release compressed air, forming a bubble. This bubble formation produces a loud sound .

Nuclear Tests in The Oceans

Decades after the nuclear bomb tests of the Cold War, traces of radioactive carbon have been found in the deepest parts of the ocean.
Crustaceans found in the deepest trenches of the Pacific Ocean showed high levels of radioactive carbon in their muscle tissues, according to a study published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters in April.
The "bomb carbon" found its way into their molecules from nuclear tests performed in the 1950s and '60s -- and it's been found miles down into the ocean where these creatures live. The results show how quickly human pollution can enter the ocean's food chain and reach the deep ocean, according to the study's authors.
It's a disturbing discovery that shows how the actions of humans can harm the planet.

Chemical Weapons on the Ocean Floor

Andrew Curry writes in his article "Weapons of War Litter the Ocean Floor"

At least one million tonnes of chemical weapons were dumped in the oceans between 1919 and 1980.

Beldowski and his colleagues looked for something very different, based on Popiel’s research. They searched for the complex chemical cocktail that military scientists used to weaponize some stocks of sulfur mustard, as well as the new degradation products created by the munitions’ reaction with seawater. The team found sulfur mustard byproducts in the seafloor sediment and often in the water around dumped bombs and containers.

What is certain, however, is that the chemical weapons lying on the seafloor pose a serious threat to humans who come in direct contact with them. And as the world focuses more on the oceans as a source of energy and food, the danger presented by underwater munitions to unsuspecting workers and fishing crews is growing. “When you invest more in the offshore economy, each day the risk of finding chemical munitions increases,”

Indeed, some major industrial projects in the Baltic, such as the Nord Stream gas pipeline from Germany to Russia, are now planning their routes in order to avoid disturbing chemical weapon dumps. And trawler activity on the ocean floor continues to uncover chemical munitions. In 2016 alone, Danish authorities have responded to four contaminated boats.

Scalar Weapons Tests in the Oceans affect the water the marine life and peoples

Acording to Tom Bearden in his website and article Examples of Sightings of
Probable Scalar Weapon Activity

Mushroom clouds from "cold explosions," Tesla domes sighted, taking over a pilot's mind. All quotes by Tom Bearden.
1. Endothermic exhaust plumes on Soviet island
"The right picture shows the "puff" of an explosive emergence of the exhaust. In other words, this one is the exhaust from a "dumping transfer" howitzer used in the pulsed exothermic mode. Since it did not have so much energy to dump, it could dump it in a pulse. Again, the primary howitzer, of course, was activated in the endothermic mode. " 
2. More probable howitzer plumes
"These exhausts from Bennett Island are euphemistically called plumes by U.S. weather analysts."
3. Location of many anomalous exhaust plumes
"This slide shows the location of three areas of interest relative to Soviet scalar EM weapons testing."
4. Site of Mystery Mushroom cloud, seen by several pilots
"The location of the "cold explosion" off the coast of Japan on April 9, 1984. The site of the explosion was only about 200 miles from downtown Tokyo. It was seen by the crews of several jet airliners, including Japan Air Lines Flight 36."
5. Giant mushroom cloud erupted above the ocean south of the Kuril Islands
"It also was a direct "stimulus" to the Japanese and the rest of the world: That is, stimulate the system and see if the scientists recognize what happened. If they do, then they know about scalar EM weapons. If they don't, then their countries know nothing of scalar EM weapons, and those countries are defenseless against them. "

Ocean Water

The foundation is the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS 1982). It says that a country may claim an area extending 12 nautical miles from its coast as its own territorial sea. Additionally it can exploit 200 nautical miles of the water column beyond its coast as its exclusive economic zone. The same applies to the first 200 nautical miles of the sea floor, the continental shelf. The resources found there can be exploited by that country alone. And that is not all. If the country can scientifically prove that its continental shelf extends even further – that it is continuously geologically connected to the mainland – it also has the sole rights to the resources there as well. This territorial claim includes islands but not rocks or other outcroppings.

But it is no longer merely a matter of access to shipping lanes. The reason for the current international conflicts actually lies beneath the waves. The disputes revolve around the expansion of territorial seas and economic zones in order to secure exclusive rights to socalled non-living marine resources, like the valuable minerals and fossil fuels buried beneath the sea floor. They are about “territory” in the sea. Absurd? Not if you look at where land begins. And where it allegedly ends.

Manifest destiny

Manifest destiny is a doctrine popular with many Americans during the 1840s that the conquests of North America was divinely obtained; that God not men had ordered the destruction of Indians, forests, buffalo, the draining of swamps and the channelling of rivers, and the development of an economy that depend on the continuing exploitation of labor and natural resources.

The Monroe Doctrine

The Monroe Doctrine originally enunciated by president James Monroe  pin 1823 was  used to take Manifest Destiny a step further when in 1950-1960  was used to assert that the United States had special rights all over the hemisphere, including the right to invade any nation in Central or South America.  That refused to back up  US policies.

According to John Perkins the author of "The Confessions of an Economic Hit Man"
"Teddy Rosevelt invoked Monroe Doctrine to justify US intervention in the Dominican Republic, in Venezuela and during the libera6of Panama from Columbia. 

A series of US presidents notably Taft, Wilson and Franklin Roswelt relied in it to expand Washington Pan American activities through the end of world war.

During the later half of the twentieth century the United States used the communist threat to justify expansion of this concept to countries around the globe including Vietnam and Indonesia"

All these countries were used as resources of raw material after were indebted to international banks using Economic Hit Mens. Some of these resources were the water in the rivers and oil exploitation of the sea floors and Ocean floors